Stammering facts and the stigma surrounding it.
Stammering is a neurological condition that makes it physically hard to speak.
Someone who stammers will repeat, prolong or get stuck on sounds or words. There might also be signs of visible tension as the person struggles to get the word out. Here are some other stammering facts:
- About 8%* of children will stammer at some point, but most will go on to talk fluently.
- For up to 3%* of adults it will be a lifelong condition.
- In the UK we largely use the term stammering. Other countries use the term stuttering. But there's no difference between them, it's the same thing.
- Stammering affects mainly men and every ethnicity.
- There is no link between stammering and intellectual capacity. And it has nothing to do with flaws in someone's character (read the section 'Stigma' below).
- Like other neurological conditions, it covers a spectrum. Everyone stammers differently and to different degrees.
- For some there’ll be periods of their life when they stammer less and others when they will struggle to speak.
- Many find that as they get older the condition improves.
(*Until recently these figures have been 5% of children and 1% of adults. We have increased them as a result of our research, which you can read about in our article 'Stammering in the Population'.)
the experience of stammering
The physical act of stammering can be a tiny part of the experience. Growing up with a stammer, anticipating times when you'll need to talk, the negative responses, the ever-present expectation that you need fixing or need to breathe properly. Feelings of shame, embarrassment, anger, anxiety and fear. Frustration that saying one's name – the one thing that most people who stammer will find hard to say – will stymie your every encounter. The frustration of not being taken seriously. For many people who stammer it is this aspect of having a stammer which forms the greater part of the experience, and there are many people out there who swap words, avoid contact, keep silent, so that people don't know that they stammer.
Stammering is variable. A stammer can change from one day, hour or sentence, to the next. The daily impact of this can be disempowering: to literally have the ability to take an active part in conversations or even order a coffee, be taken away by a physical disability.
There are all kinds of help out there for people to manage a stammer, and we'll try and cover them here on this site. But we don’t know enough about what causes it. We don't understand why saying one's name can be such a hurdle, or why a stammer will go when talking in unison or singing.
Physically, stammering can be deeply frustrating, but the main problem, time and again, is other people's responses.
Stammering has been used as a device to make people laugh and to indicate dishonesty or low intelligence. This stereotyping, and the frustration caused by the difficulty of talking with others, has led many to avoid stammering and find ways of sounding 'normal'.
You may know someone who stammers 'a little', or be surprised to hear that someone you know well tells you that they stammer. Societal expectations mean that people will often try to avoid stammering. They will anticipate speaking situations and plan for them. They may swap a word they expect to stammer on. Or they may keep what they say to the bare minimum. They may arrive late to a meeting to avoid introducing themselves.
Because stammering has very little visibility in public life, people’s reaction when they hear a stammer can take many inappropriate forms, and people often misunderstand why someone appears to stumble when they talk, assuming it's nerves or that the person is drunk or unwell.
We have information leaflets for parents, children, young people and adults which you can read and share with others. Download or order physical copies on our Leaflets page.