What causes stammering, or stuttering? Is there a cure? These questions have perplexed us for centuries. But we are getting closer to finding the answers.
There is no 'miracle cure' that will take stammering away. But there are lots of options that can help you or your child feel more in control and confident about talking. See our Get Support and For Parents page to see what options are available. We also have free Workshops.
What causes stammering?
Most stammering develops during childhood and is a neurological, rather than a psychological, condition. Subtle changes within the brain result in a physical difficulty in talking.
Stammering is not caused by anxiety or stress. But people may stammer more when stressed or anxious.
It is often a hereditary condition. About 60% of people who stammer have another family member who stammers. Most adults who stammer, around 75%, are male. When it begins in childhood, this is known as developmental stammering.
Around 8%* of children, boys and girls, will go through a short period of stammering between the ages of two and five. Short means months rather than years. The stammer may come and go during childhood, but if it continues into adulthood, then it's likely to be a lifelong condition. Up to 2%* of adults in the UK say that they stammer.
(*Until recently these figures have been 5% of children and 1% of adults. We have increased them as a result of our research, which you can read about in our 2021 article 'How many adults stammer?'.)
A far rarer form of stammering, known as acquired stammering or adult onset stammering usually occurs later in life. The main causes are a head injury, a stroke or a condition such as Parkinson's disease. Other causes can be extreme emotional distress, medication or drugs. See our Variations & Complications page for more information on acquired stammering.
- Go to What is Stammering? for more information.
- Go to our For Parents page if you have a child who stammers.
- See our Get Support section for therapies and courses.
- Got any questions? Start a webchat or call our helpline free on 0808 802 0002, open weekdays 10am-12noon & 6pm-8pm. Or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Download or order information leaflets.
There are lots of children who stammer in early childhood and, for most, the stammering will reduce or disappear over time. Others will continue to stammer into adulthood and throughout their lives.
For adults, the picture is different. We don't know enough about stammering, but we do know that if someone stammers into adulthood they are likely to continue to stammer for the rest of their lives, although the degree may vary widely. There is no 'cure', no pill or therapy which will make stammering go away. There are therapies and interventions which can help people manage their stammer and learn to speak more easily. This is often not a permanent fix and the struggle will still be there.
There are instances where the stammer can stop almost completely and that's it, or it may start again years later. Speech techniques to manage it may work for a period of time, but managing one's stammer and talking fluently can be hard work. It takes time and commitment.
You may be entirely comfortable stammering. We believe absolutely in your right to stammer. Or you may want to find ways to speak more easily and fluently. If so, we've set out the main therapies and interventions in the Therapy & Courses section. Other approaches, such as mindfulness, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and yoga, can also prove useful. The important thing is to find out what works for you now. And if you’re OK with the way you speak, you don’t need to do anything at all.
There is currently not enough clinical data available on the influence of Cannabidiol (CBD) oil on a stammer for STAMMA to recommend it as a course of treatment. We are aware that there are anecdotal accounts of some individuals feeling that CBD oil has helped them with the anxiety sometimes associated with stammering.
We suggest that anyone interested in using CBD oil talks to their GP and does as much research as possible. The market for legal cannabis-derived products is comparatively new in the UK with products currently not independently tested or uniformly labelled. Useful information on CBD oil, the labelling of CBD products and consumer protections can be found in this article on which.co.uk.